Advice: Most cases of non-retractile foreskin will need referral.
Refer To: Urologist.
Adults with a tight, non-retractile foreskin should be referred. Recurrent infection, skin changes or suspected BXO also need referral. Penile carcinoma is rare, but needs consideration.
In cases of BXO, topical steroids can be tried in adults for 12 weeks, but many cases will need consideration of circumcision.
Please note that paediatric cases need to be referred to a paediatric urologist. A physiological phimosis and ballooning of the foreskin is not uncommon up to age of 5 years, and most resolve.